# Mathematics

## Proficiencies

**Understanding** includes making connections between representations of numbers, using fractions to represent probabilities, comparing and ordering fractions and decimals and representing them in various ways, describing transformations and identifying line and rotational symmetry.

**Fluency **includes choosing appropriate units of measurement for calculation of perimeter and area, using estimation to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations and using instruments to measure angles.

**Problem Solving** includes formulating and solving authentic problems using whole numbers and measurements and creating financial plans.

**Reasoning **includes investigating strategies to perform calculations efficiently, continuing patterns involving fractions and decimals, interpreting results of chance experiments, posing appropriate questions for data investigations and interpreting data sets.

## Achievement Standard

By the end of the year students are expected to:

- solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies;
- check the reasonableness of answers using estimation and rounding;
- identify and describe factors and multiples;
- explain plans for simple budgets. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations;
- describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry;
- compare and interpret different data sets;
- order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on number lines;
- add and subtract fractions with the same denominator;
- continue patterns by adding and subtracting fractions and decimals;
- find unknown quantities in number sentences;
- use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles;
- convert between 12 and 24 hour time;
- use a grid reference system to locate landmarks;
- measure and construct different angles;
- list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities between 0 and 1;
- pose questions to gather data, and construct data displays appropriate for the data.